Ichthyology - the scientific study of fishes
IGFA - international game fish federation, the headquarters is in Florida USA, and sets standards for fishing tackle and keeps a list of record fish
Incubation - the period of time from egg fertilization until hatching
Inshore fishing - fishing in a boat that is close to shore
Jerk bait - a jerk bait is a lure that floats and when you jerk it, it goes underwater.
Jig - a fishing lure that is jerked to attract the fish, normally used from a boat
Jigging - the sporadic up and down movement of the rod to imitate natural movement of a lure
Keep net - net used to keep fish alive to be returned after the end of the fishing session
Kelt - a salmon that has spawned recently
Knots - to tie anything you need a knot. To connect a hook to line a knot is tied
Krill - small abundant crustaceans that form an important part of the food chain in Antarctic waters
Landing net - net with a long handle to retrieve the fish once brought to the bank
Lateral line - series of sensory pores opening to the exterior located along the side of fish
Larva - refers to the subsurface stage of development of an aquatic insect
Leader - used in fly fishing - A leader is a wire or real strong fishing line that goes on the end of your line. there are two types - the tapered link between the fly and the fly line. A leader is a wire or real strong fishing line that goes on the end of your line. You tie one end to your fishing line and the other end to your lure. This makes sure that fish with sharp teeth such as pike or zander or fins won't cut your line.
Ledger / Leger - a weight used in fishing
Ledgering / Legering - to fish without a float using a heavy weight to keep the bait on the river bed / bottom of the lake
Lever drag - a type of drag system on a reel, adjusted by a lever on the side of the reel
Lift bite - this is when a fish takes the baited hook from the river or lake bed and the float rises out of the water
Line - Fishing line. Fishing line comes in many forms and strengths, the most common being monofilament line made from nylon. When fishing, anglers should use as light a line as possible to prevent detection by the fish, while still ensuring that it is heavy enough to prevent breakage. Line should always be disposed of sensibly to prevent wildlife becoming caught up in it.
Line clip - this is a small clip on the side of the spool on a fixed spool reel to which your fishing line can be placed to retain it. This is often used for accuracy when fishing at a fixed distance. After casting the line is clipped in place and then each time you cast you reach the same target.
Line bite - when a fish swims into or catches your fishing line
Line drier - a devise used by fly fishermen to strip the reel of line and then dry the line before replacing
Line Guides - the eyelets or rings on a rod through which fishing line is passed
Live bait - live bait as the term suggests is a fish that is alive when you put it on your hook, such as roach, and used for predator fishing for pike or zander
Lobworm - worm used as a fishing bait. These are the large worms with the flat tail that are found in our gardens
Loosefeed - small offerings of hook bait such as maggots or sweetcorn which are thrown into the water to keep the fish interested in the area you are fishing
Lug worm - one of the best baits for saltwater fish such as cod, plaice, bass etc. Lugworm are dug at low tide and are easily spotted by the worm cast on the surface of the sand or mud. The lugworm burrows in the sand in a U shape tunnel. There is the worm cast and a few inches away a small depression in the sand, this is the ends of the U shape tunnel. Dig to the side of this to collect the lugworm
Lures - artificial devise to imitate insects, small fish, animals to attract fish.
Mainline - the main fishing line on the fishing reel
Match fishing - a competitive form of coarse fishing which involves people drawing out a random peg (a place to fish), and then trying catch as many fish as possible within the allotted time. Usually the winner will be the one with the greatest weight of fish caught
Mayfly - a species of aquatic insect that provides food for a variety of fish, mayflies have upright wings in the shape of a sail
Method the - the Method is a style of feeder fishing. It consists of a frame feeder covered with groundbait, fished with a short hook length up to 6 inches
Midge - a tiny aquatic insect that thrives in just about all aquatic environments, provide a great source of food for fish
Migrating - moving from one area of residence to another
Milt - the secretion of a fish for reproduction
Minnow - a small fish
Mitchell - reel manufacturers
Mono - short for monofilament
Monofilament - a man made nylon line
Multiplier reel - a reel with a revolving spool, which multiplies leverage on the line as it's winched in. Mainly used by sea anglers
Neap tide - the tide with the least difference or movement, between the high and low water, happens during the first and last quarter of the moon
Nymph - an aquatic insect during its immature stage of development while underneath the surface of the water
Offshore fishing - fishing from a boat out to sea a distance away from the land
Olivette - an oval fishing weight used on the line by pole anglers
Operculum - the gill cover
Orvis - fishing reel and rod manufacturers and assorted fishing tackle
Outriggers - poles that extends out from a boat to enable several lines to be fished, without tangling
Overfish - to fish to excess
Oxbow - a U shaped bend in a river or stream
Parr - a stage of development in the life of a salmon and trout between alevin and smolt when the young have developed parr marks and are actively feeding in fresh water
Particles - small baits such as hemp, pellets or nuts.
Pectoral fins - the anterior (front) paired fins attached to pectoral (shoulder) girdle
Peg - a peg is a pre defined fishing area. Venues are split up into evenly spaced fishing areas which are often marked with a wooden peg or marker
Pelvic fins - posterior paired fins located in the abdominal position or towards the rear
Penn - reel and other fishing tackle manufacturers
Pennell - reel manufacturers
Perch - species of fish. Latin name Perca fluviatilis - from the Family: Percidae see Perch
Pharyngeal teeth - teeth located behind the gills and before the oesophagus, and anchored in bone
Pike - species of fish see Pike Latin name Esox lucius
Piscator - one who fishes, an angler.
Piscatory - of or pertaining to fishes or fishing.
Piscatrix (USA) - a female angler
Plankton - minute floating forms of microscopic plants and animals in water which cannot get about to any extent under their own power. They form the important beginnings of food chains for larger animals
Playing - fighting the fish to tire the fish so that it can be landed
Plug - fishing lure. a plastic or wooden imitation of a small fish with hooks attached used for catching predator fish.
Plumbing up / Plumb the depth - using a weight or plummet attached to your fishing line to check the depth of water you will be fishing see Plumb the Depth
Plummet - a weight that an angler attaches to his / her fishing line and used to check the depth of the water. This can either be a small conical weight with cork fixed at the bottom or a clip on type. see Plumb the Depth
Pod - a folding stand on which a number of carp rods are placed. Easier and neater than using banksticks.
Pole - similar to a rod but minus the eyes and reel seat. Comes in different lengths
Pole fishing - specialised method that utilises a pole with line and hook attached, without a reel
Pond - a body of water smaller than a lake often artificially formed
Pop-Up - usually refers to boilies which when fished as bait will float or pop up off of the bottom of the lake bed
Predator - an animal that hunts and kills another for food such as pike and zander
Predation - hunting and killing another animal for food
Priest - used to administer the last rites to the captured fish. They used to be made of stag horn, aluminium and mahogany and had a lead weight in the head
Pumping - a technique used when fighting a heavy large fish. i.e. on a boat to retrieve a fish, you lift the rod and wind in the line as you lower the rod, then do it again and again until the fish surfaces
Pupae - the immature stage of development for an aquatic insect
Putcheon / Putcher (USA) - a wire trap for catching salmon
PVA - Poly Vinyl Alcohol – a thin material which dissolves in water
PVA bag - a small bag made from PVA used to hold bait particles and your rig when casting.
PVA string - string made from PVA used in tying rig sections together for casting.
PVA tape - tape made from PVA used in tying rig sections together for casting.
Quill Float - a float made from the quill of peacock feathers. Not used as much nowadays
Quiver tip - special type of rod used to detect bites when ledgering. It has a sensitive tip that curves over when the angler has a bite. Quiver tips vary in strength and stiffness which can be changed according to the weather conditions
Ray - this has two meanings, one is the name of a sea fish the other meaning is one of the supports of a fin
Redworm - worm used as a fishing bait. Has been the hook bait choice of anglers for generations! Normally found in manure heaps
Reel - an instrument that holds the fishing line. Used in conjunction with a rod it is attached to the handle of the rod and is used to collect and cast the fishing line
Reel seat - for attaching the reel to the rod, this could be done with a secure slot and a screw ring, or by two sliding rings
Reproduce - to produce offspring
Reservoir - an artificial water body, normally used for drinking water supply, and which may also be stocked with fish.
Re-stocking - the practice of releasing artificially reared fry or fingerlings into ponds, reservoirs, or open waters. Rig- the end gear or terminal tackle
Rise -a fish breaking the surface of the water to take an insect
River - a natural flow of water of considerable volume.
Riverbank - the bank or banks of a river.
Riverbed - the area / channel between the banks through which a river flows.
Roach - species of fish see Roach
Rod - the instrument used to cast the bait. There are many types of fishing rods - leger rods, fly rods, casting rods, spinning rods, beachcasters, boat rods
Rod rest - pole that can be driven into the ground, with a V shape at one end to rest the rod, can have several V's so you can fish with more than one rod at one time
Rod ring - rod rings are the rings along a fishing rod that the line runs through
Roe - the eggs of fishes
Rudd - species of fish see Rudd
Run - this has three meanings, the hooked fish making a dash for freedom away from the angler, could also mean a stretch of water or a group of fish of the same species, such as salmon, that migrate together up a stream to spawn. The run is usually associated with the seasons, e.g. spring, summer, and winter runs
Salmon - species of fish - game fish
Salmonid - fish of the family Salmonidae that includes salmon and steelhead
Salter spring balance - scales used by anglers to weigh their catch
Seat box - seat boxes are boxes made to hold all of your tackle and can also be used to sit on while fishing
Setting a hook - striking at a bite to set the hook into the fish's mouth
Shakespeare - reel manufacturers
Shimano - fishing tackle manufactures
Shoal - a group of fish swimming together
Shot - also called split shot - round balls of lead or metal (depending on the size) with a split (cut) halfway through. Line is place in the cut and the shot squeezed together to close the cut, holding the shot on the line. Used to balance the float in the water or to stop the leger from sliding down the line to the hook
Silt - substrate particles smaller than sand and larger than clay
Sinker - term referring to both leads and sinking baits
Sinking fly line - fly line made from material that sinks below the water surface
Skimmer - term referring to a small bream, generally under 1lb 8oz
Slack tide - the short period between the ebb and flood tides when the current is at its weakest
Smolt - a young salmon that is ready to migrate
Snag - rocky or uneven bed that can snare your hook and line
Spade end hooks - instead of an eye to which to tie the fishing line to spade end hooks have the end where the eye normally is flattened and the line is tied round this either by hand or the use of a hook tier
Spawn - the eggs of fish
Spawning - the release or deposition of spermatozoa or ova, of which some will fertilize or be fertilized to produce offspring; fish reproduction process characterized by females and males depositing eggs and sperm into the water simultaneously or in succession so as to fertilize the eggs.
Specimen - this is a term given to any fish that is a particularly good size for its species
Spin - fish with spinners or lures
Spinner (lure) - a lure can be metallic or plastic in the shape of a fish and shiny to attract fish, used with a spinning rod and fast retrieval reel. A lure that spins in the water and is usually used for catching predator or game fish such as pike, chub trout and salmon
Spinning rods - rod designed to specifically assist with the spinning lure
Split cane rod - an old-fashioned bamboo rod made by gluing together long strips of cane in hexagonal fashion. The cross-section of a split cane rod would look like a pie cut into six slices, though the periphery is six-sided or eight-sided
Split shot - also called shot is round balls of lead or metal (depending on the size) with a split (cut) halfway through. Line is place in the cut and the shot squeezed together to close the cut, holding the shot on the line. Used to balance the float in the water or to stop the leger from sliding down the line to the hook
Spod - used a lot by carper's for baiting up. a spod is a 'rocket' shaped plastic tube closed at the pointed end. A powerful rod with strong line should be used for casting the spod. The spod is tied to the main line, filled with bait such as particles or pellets and cast out into the area to be fished. When the filled spod hits the water it will turn upside down allowing the bait to empty from the spod.
Spool - the part of the reel that the line is wound round and stored
Spoon - metallic lure in the shape of a table spoon. Used in spinning
Sportfisherman - a motorboat equipped for sportfishing
Sportfishing - fishing for sport
Spring tide - tide with the largest difference between the high and low level water. Happens around the time of the new and full moon
Squid - marine cephalopod used as bait in sea fishing
Steelhead - (USA) a salmon that is born in freshwater streams and migrates to the sea or large lake, then comes back to spawn
Stick float - a float that is used in river fishing (or running water) and is attached to the line using a float rubber at the top and bottom. Tip: use an extra float rubber in the middle as well and if one of the rubbers break ie when adjusting the float up or down the line, then the extra rubber can be moved into its place. Saves time having to set up again
Stocking - the practice of releasing artificially reared fry or fingerlings into ponds, reservoirs, or open waters.Stream - a body of running water.
Strike - this is when a fisherman gets a bite from a fish and he lifts his rod from a forward position, in an arc upwards and backwards in an attempt to set the hook into a fish
Sunglasses - to protect your eyes and help you see those fish. Polarised are preferred
Surf - of the sea, braking waves close to the shore
Surfcaster - one who fishes from the shore by casting into the surf
Swim - part of the river or lake fished by the angler
Swim bladder - a tough-walled gas-filled sac lying in the upper part of the body cavity of many bony fishes just beneath the vertebral column; its principal function is to offset the weight of heavier tissue such as bone. In some fishes used for sound production or respiration.
Swimfeeder - swimfeeder is an easy way of getting the feed near the fish. A swimfeeder is a weighted frame around which you pack the groundbait into a solid ball or a small hollow tube into which you pack your groundbait. It is attached to the line near the hook and when cast out the groundbait empties and is in the vicinity of your hook
Swing tip - a bite indicator (similar to a piece of cane with an eye on the end) fixed to the tip of the rod which hangs down vertically and has the line threaded through the eye. The swing tip is not used as much these days due to the arrival of buzzers and electronic bite indicators. The swing tip is used on stillwaters and indicates a bite by rising up when the line is pulled by a fish. Can be very sensitive and on its day can out do new electronic bite alarms
Swivel - swivels join lines where there is a tendency for the line to twist when it is in the water or being retrieved. Swivels can be two way or three way and barrel or a stronger ball-bearing type
Swoffer (USA) one who engages in Swoffing, the sport of saltwater fly fishing
Swoffing - (USA) the sport of saltwater fly-fishing
Syndicate - similar to Club - a group of anglers who each pay a sum of money annually enabling them exclusive fishing rights to a water
Tackle - a term used to refer to any fishing equipment
Tackle box - the container that houses all your tackle to be transported to the fishing venue
Tagging - Marking, or attaching a tag to fish, so that it or they can be identified on recapture.
Taper - the part of the fly line that gradually decreases in diameter to the hook
Tapered leader - leader that tapers from the thicker to the thinner line, the thinner end is attached to the fly or lureTench - Latin name Tinca Tinca - species of fish see Tench
Test curve - the test curve is the weight needed to make the tip of a rod bend 90 degrees from the rod butt. Each rod has a test curve with those being used for specimen fish such as carp having a greater test curve than a general coarse rod
Thermocline - the distinct interface between surface waters and cooler, deeper waters; region below the surface layer of the sea or lake, where temperature declines abruptly with increasing depth.
Tide - The rise and falling of seas, oceans and some rivers. The movement of the oceans caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun
Tight lines - anglers saying meaning good luck
Terminal tackle - the end gear of the fishing line such as the hook, weights, swivels
Trace - part of the set up made up of the line and hook attached together
Treble hook - this is mainly used by pike anglers or when predator fishing. It looks like three hooks, two with the eye removed, the shanks welded together back to back, with the gapes at 120 degree angle to each other. These can be barbed or barbless. If barbed use a pair of pliers and crush the barbs to help protect the fish being damaged in the removal.
Tributary - a creek, stream, or river that feeds a larger stream or river or lake
Troll - to tow a lure or bait behind a moving boat
Trolling - towing a lure or bait behind a moving boat
Trotting - allowing a float to travel at the speed of the current when fishing on rivers or on running waters
Vegetation - fishermen refer to any underwater plant as vegetation
Ventral fin - the fin located on the front of a fish's abdomen.
Vertebra - an individual segment of the backbone of a fish.
Vertebrate - a creature that has a backbone, for instance a fish or a mammal.
Vice - used for fly tying, the hook is gripped in the vice and then the fly is built up
Waders - waterproof boots worn to keep the angler dry, can be chest high, or waist high
Wading - to stand in or transverse a river or stream on foot; most commonly done in shallower waterways
Watercraft - A term for how an angler reads the water and conditions to find a good location for catching fish.
Wels Catfish - species of fish see Wels Catfish
Wet fly - a fly pattern that is used by fly fishermen to imitate creatures below the surface of the water
Yearling - a one year old fish
Yolk Sac - in embryos and early fish larvae, a bag-like ventral extension of the gut containing nutrive materials. It nourishes the growing fish until it is able to feed itself.
Zander - species of fish see Zander
Zebco - reel manufacturers
Zooplankton - small aquatic animals that are suspended or swimming in water